AVS 68 Session 2D+EM+MI+NS+QS-WeM: 2D Materials: Quantum and Symmetry-Protected States

Wednesday, November 9, 2022 8:00 AM in Room 303

Wednesday Morning

Session Abstract Book
(272KB, Nov 18, 2022)
Time Period WeM Sessions | Abstract Timeline | Topic 2D Sessions | Time Periods | Topics | AVS 68 Schedule

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8:00 AM 2D+EM+MI+NS+QS-WeM-1 Semi-High Throughput Investigation of 2d Materials: Anomalous Quantum Confinement Effect and Spectral Properties
Francesca Tavazza, Kamal Choudhary (National Institute of Standard and Technology)

Materials with van der Waals-bonding exhibit quantum confinement effect, in which the electronic bandgap of the three-dimensional (3D) form is lower than that of its two-dimensional (2D) counterpart. However, the possibility of an anomalous quantum confinement effect (AQCE) exists, where the bandgap trend is reversed. In this work, we computationally identify materials with AQCE. Using density functional theory (DFT), we compute ≈1000 OptB88vdW (semi-local functional), ≈50 HSE06 and ≈50 PBE0 (hybrid functional) bandgaps for bulk and their corresponding monolayers, in the JARVIS-DFT database. OptB88vdW identifies 65 AQCE materials, but the hybrid functionals only confirm such finding in 14 cases. Electronic structure analysis shows that AQCE is often characterized by the lowering of the conduction band in the monolayer and related changes in the pz electronic orbital contribution. In addition to AQCE, the JARVIS-DFT contains IR and Raman spectra for many 2D materials. Properties of such spectra will be discussed as well.

8:40 AM 2D+EM+MI+NS+QS-WeM-3 Dry Patterning Chemically Sensitive Quantum Materials
Joseph Benigno, Qiang Zou, Cheng Cen, Lian Li (West Virginia University)
Accurate, repeatable patterning of quantum material-based electronic devices is desirable for electrical transport measurements. However, the most common method, photolithography, can degrade, or even damage, chemically sensitive quantum materials during fabrication. Here we introduce a new dry-patterning method for device fabrication with lateral etching resolution down to ~30 µm. The new method utilizes a tabletop computer numerical control (CNC) router machine to gently etch patterns into thin films, leaving behind the desired device or devices on the substrate. We create Hall bars with conductive channel widths of 30, 60, and 120 µm from ~20 layer FeTe-capped superconducting single layer FeSe/SrTiO3 systems. Transport measurements show the same zero resistance Tc of 10 K for the Van der Pauw (vdP) geometry and all Hall bar structures. However, the onset temperature Tonset is the largest at 28K for the vdP geometry, and decreases with the width of the Hall bar to 13K for the 60 µm device. Our method provides a new time-saving, cost-effective, and chemical-free strategy for fabrication of devices from quantum materials.

This research is supported by DOE DE-SC0021393.

9:00 AM 2D+EM+MI+NS+QS-WeM-4 Electron Transport and Charge Sensing in Strongly Coupled Quantum Dot Array in Silicon
Fan Fei, Jonathan Wyrick, Pradeep Namboodiri, Joseph Fox (NIST); Ehsan Khatami (SJSU); Richard Silver (NIST)

Atomically precise donor-based quantum devices in silicon are fabricated using STM lithography, which has become a promising platform for solid state quantum computation and analog quantum simulation. Lattices of dopant-based quantum dots have unique advantages in simulating strongly correlated Fermionic systems of real atomic lattice sites because of their naturally occurring ion-cores which make them the Fermi-Hubbard sites in the Silicon Vacuum. Understanding electron transport and charge configuration in a smaller array is critical to using these arrays to simulate larger systems and explore various condensed matter physics phenomena such as superconductivity in the future. This talk will focus on the electron transport in the strongly coupled regime where the electrons delocalize across small N x N dot arrays. Numerical simulations for charge stability diagrams and transport properties show qualitatively agreement with our experiments. We apply rf reflectometry on a SLQD and use it as charge sensor for probing the electron configuration within the array.

9:20 AM 2D+EM+MI+NS+QS-WeM-5 Observation of the Layer Hall Effect in Topological Axion Antiferromagnet MnBi2Te4
Suyang Xu (Harvard University)

While ferromagnets have been known and exploited for millennia, antiferromagnets were only discovered in the 1930s. The elusive nature indicates antiferromagnets’ unique properties: At large scale, due to the absence of global magnetization, antiferromagnets may appear to behave like any non-magnetic material; At the microscopic level, however, the opposite alignment of spins forms a rich internal structure. In topological antiferromagnets, such an internal structure leads to a new possibility, where topology and Berry phase can acquire distinct spatial textures. We study this exciting possibility in an antiferromagnetic Axion insulator, even-layered MnBi2Te4 flakes. We report the observation of a new type of Hall effect, the layer Hall effect,where electrons from the top and bottom layers spontaneously deflect in opposite directions.


A. Gao, et al.“Layer Hall effect in a 2D topological axion antiferromagnet.” Nature 595, 521 (2021).

View Supplemental Document (pdf)
10:00 AM BREAK - Complimentary Coffee in Exhibit Hall
11:00 AM 2D+EM+MI+NS+QS-WeM-10 Phonon Limited Mobility and Phonon Drag in h-BN Encapsulated Monolayer and AB-stacked Bilayer Graphene
Vasili Perebeinos (University at Buffalo)

We report the electrical transport in h-BN encapsulated AB-stacked bilayer graphene theoretically and experimentally. Using the perturbation theory within the tight-binding model approach, we identify the dominant role of the shear phonon mode scattering on the carrier mobility in AB-stacked graphene bilayer at room temperature. The shear phonon mode is absent in free-standing monolayer graphene, which explains high mobilities in monolayer devices fabricated under similar conditions resulting in minimal Coulomb impurity scattering. At temperatures above 200K, the surface polar phonon scattering from the boron-nitride substrate contributes significantly to the experimental mobilities of 15,000 -20,000 cm2/Vs at room temperature and carrier concentration n~1012 cm2 reported here. A screened SPP potential for a dual gated bilayer and transferable tight-binding model allows us to predict mobility scaling with temperature and bandgap for both electrons and holes in agreement with the experiment Phys Rev. Lett. 128, 206602 (2022).

The resulting electron-SPP coupling is used to predict that, by exploiting the strong coupling of their electrons to surface polar phonons, van der Waals heterostructures can offer a suitable platform for phonon sensing, capable of resolving energy transfer at the single-phonon level. The geometry we consider is one in which a drag momentum is exerted on electrons in a graphene layer, by a single out-of-equilibrium phonon in a dielectric layer of hexagonal boron nitride, giving rise to a measurable induced voltage. Our numerical solution of the Boltzmann Transport Equation shows that this drag voltage can reach a level of a few hundred microvolts per phonon, well above experimental detection limits. Furthermore, we predict that drag voltage should be largely insensitive to the mobility of carriers in the graphene layer and increase the temperature up to at least 300 K, offering the potential of a versatile material platform for single-phonon sensing.
11:20 AM 2D+EM+MI+NS+QS-WeM-11 Exciton Physics at the Atomic Scale
Daniel Gunlycke (U.S. Naval Research Laboratory)
Descriptions of excitons in pristine semiconducting crystals usually rely on the hydrogen model adopted for excitons. Owing to the weak screening in monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides, however, the electron and hole separation in the strongest bound excitons is on the atomic scale, necessitating atomistic treatment. In this presentation, we present a minimalistic exciton model that accounts for the lattice and the spin-orbit and exchange interactions, thus making this model appropriate across the spectrum from Wannier to Frenkel excitons. Using this model, we show that the exciton lifetimes could be extended by transitioning the excitons into excitonic dark states. Longer exciton lifetimes could make these materials candidates for applications in energy management and quantum information processing.
11:40 AM 2D+EM+MI+NS+QS-WeM-12 Weyl Semimetals with Low-Symmetry Crystal Structure for Generating Out-of-Plane Oriented Spin Current
Simranjeet Singh (Carnegie Mellon University)

Weyl semimetals (WSMs), such as WTe2 and MoTe2, host plethora of novel phenomena that are highly relevant for quantum spintronics, namely: Dirac type dispersion, strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC), Fermi arcs, and helical spin-momentum locked surface and bulk states. WSMsprovide a distinct opportunity to obtain highly efficient and unconventional charge to spin conversion owing to strong SOC, symmetry breaking, and these topology-based phenomena. On the other hand, spin-orbit torque (SOT) driven deterministic control of the magnetic state of a ferromagnet with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy is key to next generation spintronic applications including non-volatile, ultrafast, and energy efficient data storage devices. But field-free deterministic SOT switching of perpendicular magnetization remains a challenge because it requires an out-of-plane oriented spin current, which is not allowed in conventional spin source materials such as heavy metals and topological insulators due to the system’s symmetry. The exploitation of low-crystal symmetries WTe2 and MoTe2 offers a unique approach to achieve SOTs with unconventional forms1. In this work, I will discuss our experiments to realize field-free deterministic magnetic switching of a perpendicularly polarized van der Waals magnet employing an out-of-plane spin current generated in layered WTe2, which is a quantum material with low-symmetry crystal structure2. I will also discuss our experiments aimed at achieving field-free SOT switching of semiconducting and insulating FMs using spin current in WSMs. Our work establishes transition metal dichalcogenides, with lower symmetry crystal structure, as an appealing spin source material for future spin-orbit torque related magnetic memory technologies.

[1]. MacNeill, D. et al. Control of spin–orbit torques through crystal symmetry in WTe2/ferromagnet bilayers. Nature Physics13, 300-305, (2017).

[2]. Kao, I-H et al. Deterministic switching of a perpendicularly polarized magnet using unconventional spin–orbit torques in WTe2. Nature Materials (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41563-022-01275-5

Session Abstract Book
(272KB, Nov 18, 2022)
Time Period WeM Sessions | Abstract Timeline | Topic 2D Sessions | Time Periods | Topics | AVS 68 Schedule